What are the methods of cell disruption?

What are the methods of cell disruption?

Ultrasonic cell disruption

High efficiency, ultrasound with different power, converted from electrical energy into acoustic energy, physical reaction, the cell wall cell membrane is broken, retaining the original properties. It is now the method required for many experimental and industrial production.

Osmotic shock crushing

Osmotic shock is a milder method of crushing cells. The cells are placed in a solution with high osmotic pressure (such as a certain concentration of glycerol or sucrose solution). Due to the osmotic pressure, the water in the cells exudes outward and the cells occur. Shrinkage, when equilibrium is reached, the medium is rapidly diluted, or the cells are transferred to water or buffer. Due to the sudden change in osmotic pressure, extracellular water rapidly penetrates into the cells, causing the cells to rapidly expand and rupture.

Chemical crushing

Chemical treatment can dissolve cells or extract intracellular components. Chemical reagents such as acids, bases, surfactants and organic solvents

Enzymatic solution

Enzymatic hydrolysis is to treat the bacterial cells by the enzyme that dissolves the cell wall, and after partially or completely destroying the cell wall, the cell membrane is destroyed by osmotic pressure shock or the like to further increase the permeability of the intracellular product. Lysozyme is suitable for the decomposition of Gram-positive cells. When applied to Gram-negative bacteria, it needs to be supplemented with EDTA to make it more effective on the cell wall. The cell wall of eukaryotic cells differs from prokaryotic cells in that different enzymes are required.

Freeze-thaw crushing

The cells were frozen at a low temperature (about -15 ° C), then thawed at room temperature, and repeated several times to achieve wall breaking. Due to freezing, on the one hand, the hydrophobic bond structure of the cell membrane can be broken, thereby increasing the hydrophilic property of the cell, and on the other hand, the intracellular water crystallizes to form ice crystal grains, causing the cells to swell and rupture. This method can be used for cells with weak cell walls.


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